I'm sorry the replies so far haven't really been that helpful, with people disbelieving you and giving you flip answers, etc. It's probably too late now, nearly a year later.
Anyway, this is a very difficult question for most people to answer; even regular people aren't very good at empathy, so most 'play' at it to some degree. Humans are pretty selfish creatures.
That said, as you know, your thought patterns are out of the norm even so, and I imagine it has the capacity to bother you even as it bothers any listeners (which is possibly why people can't deal and may sound dismissive or insensitive, at least to my ears). I've heard that professional psychiatrists are often inept when faced with sociopathic personalities, for example; it's hard to be unafraid, compassionate, helpful, useful, when a part of our hind brain may feel like that gutted fish. Fear.
So, what to do. As someone said, you may grow out of it, but I do class that as a flip answer anyway. Lots of sociopath-range individuals go on to live normal lives; most aren't as honest as you. Most people wouldn't want them to be honest. But I, for one, want to help.
Step 1: you have to do whatever it takes to assert yourself in reasonable ways. Don't allow yourself to build up resentment: when something bothers you, express yourself. If you do have violence within you, if you allow it to bubble up even just in your eyes, people will get the message and be intimidated. This may be satisfactory.
Step 2: Consider organized sports that train both your body and mind in a united discipline, such as most martial arts. I very strongly recommend this, and encourage you to get extremely focused on this even if you listen to nothing else I say. I'm almost 90% sure something like Aikido would help at least somewhat with the popping feeling.
Step 3: Read fiction... lots and lots of fiction. The way to make a study of human beings can be to actually make a study of them. Try your best to not only understand motives but to understand them from the inside out. Imagine yourself doing things you've never done and can never do, and put some serious effort into that act of imagination. Imagination can be a muscle. Exercise it.
Step 4: Make a friend. This is going to be hard, but as important as martial arts. This could change everything. You have to be totally honest with this friend, though not necessarily immediately. You should share common interests, but not the hurting thing. Don't like, make a friend who robs banks or whatever, you know? But find someone you respect, and try to get to know them. You don't have to feel empathy for this friend-- just find someone you share interests with and respect and spend time with this person. If nothing else, this will distract you from hurting things. That's not the most interesting or intellectually challenging activity to be doing, you know? Eventually, I think, you should be able to find more interesting hobbies, even if you never become touchy-feely or 'sensitive', and that's fine.
Hurting things that can't fight back is just sort of an insult to you, isn't it? Because you can and should take on things directly. That's what self-respect is. Once again, that's what martial arts are for.
Don't ever let people make you feel like less than you are-- a human being-- and you will be much more likely to realize that all people are also individuals, that you can accept as individuals. You don't need to feel anything for them. Just realize they have a right to exist just as you do, just as the sky does and the earth does. Cultivate this awareness of the solid presence of things. You; your boots; the sky; someone's dog; a chair; your teacher; a car; a policeman. All these things exist in their own little bubbles, even if they interact sometimes. You don't need to breach others' bubbles, since you don't need to let others breach yours. That's the foundation, the place you can return to when you've lost your way: this idea that you exist and so do they, and that's enough. When you're ready, build on that to say: let's have an honest interaction, a transaction of mutual interest rather than use or abuse.
I hope you find other people genuinely useful, and one day see that we don't need to be the same.